«El cyborg es una criatura en un mundo postgenérico»Donna J. Haraway (1988), «Manifiesto para cyborgs»4
In A Cyborg Manifesto, Haraway deploys the metaphor of a cyborg in order to challenge feminists to engage in a politics beyond naturalism and essentialisms. She also uses the metaphor of the cyborg to offer a political strategy for the seemingly disparate interests of socialism and feminism. Firstly, she introduces and defines the "cyborg." A cyborg is (see also Cyborg theory): * Cybernetic organism * Hybrid of machine and organism * Creature of both fiction and lived social realityAs a postmodern feminist, she argues against essentialism – which is "any theory that claims to identify a universal, transhistorical, necessary cause or constitution of gender identity or patriarchy" (Feminist Epistemology, 2006). Such theories, argues Haraway, either exclude women who don’t conform to the theory and segregate them from "real women" or represent them as inferior. Another form of feminism that Haraway is disputing is "a jurisprudence model of feminism made popular by the legal scholar and Marxist, Catharine MacKinnon" (Burow-Flak, 2000) who fought to outlaw pornography as a form of hate speech. Haraway argues that MacKinnon’s legalistic version of radical feminism assimilates all of women's experiences into a particular identity, which ironically recapitulates the very Western ideologies that have contributed to the oppression of women. She writes: "It is factually and politically wrong to assimilate all of the diverse 'moments' or 'conversations' in recent women's politics named radical feminism to MacKinnon's version" (158).